The 30-year-old – capped 14 times – joins from relegated Premiershp side Bristol Shoguns and is renowned as one of the best scrummagers in the northern hemisphere.
He last played for England in the 2003 Six Nations opener against France, but a recurring knee injury and subsequent operation put paid to his involvement in the rest of the tournament, although he is likely to feature in coach Clive Woodward's RWC 2003 squad as back-up to Gloucester's Phil Vickery.
"Leicester's track-record speaks for itself," said White. "I'm looking to try to anchor my place in the England team and there's only one place to do that and that's Leicester.
"I’m 30 now and I want to play some decent rugby, get some top coaching and improve myself.
“Tigers are a very organised unit. They have a side that has been very settled and it doesn’t seem to matter how they’re getting on, they always seem to come up with a win at the end of the game.
“I’ve been injured for the last couple of months but that’s better now and obviously will be looking for a place in the World Cup squad."
White, who also had a stint in New Zealand with Canterbury and the Crusaders, missed out on England's entire autumn Test series against New Zealand, Australia and South Africa after receiving a 10-week ban for head-butting new front row team-mate Graham Rowntree during a Premiership encounter between Bristol and Leicester in December 2002.
After that latest ban, White, who has been sent off three times during his Premiership career, vowed to clean up his on-field act in order to keep himself in contention for further international honours.
White is the latest in a long line of players to leave Bristol, the prop following in the footsteps of a host of former team-mates, including Felipe Contepomi, Garath Archer, Phil Christophers and Alex Brown.